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❶This seminar, designed for seniors, aims to acquaint students with the notion and theoretical understanding of culture and to introduce them to a critical method by which they can study and appreciate contemporary culture in the Arab World.

Sheila Arnold

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These poems illustrate a different struggle to the one established by the concept if apartheid; they show the conflict of interests among sexes as the struggle within the struggle. In this repute it is imperative to understand the degree at which gender apartheid participated in the progression of the racial apartheid dispensation in South Africa. The idea of woman oppression was always under the shadow of racial oppression and these poems address this issue by suggesting that the gender struggle is more important than the racial struggle.

The style in which both these writers convey their message is fairly similar to point that the reader would feel like they are having conversation with the speaker in regards to the fact that these poems are written in the first person voice. This idea is emphasised by the use of free verse in the sense that there is no structure to follow the reader can read the poem without the technicality of rhythm diverting his attention from the content and pause in some places to allow the reader to reflect on their understanding on certain lines.

It seems like she wants the reader to reflect on these words in the sense of a different struggle, the struggle she introduces in line nine; the struggle for love. Lisa mentions the racial struggle as a reference tool for her argument where the oppressor is the entire system and its effects on the minds of people in society.

She infers hat freedom is not only a physical state of being but rather that it is internalised power influenced by the power of love, furthermore she deepens her argument by suggesting that this power lies in woman and that men should, along with the entire system, should reconsider their concept of womanhood and interpret it in its fullest capacity and value.

She argues against the traditional role of a woman in the apartheid regime and has a strong desire to free herself from all types of bondage and obligation even those related to spiritualty lines 6 and 7. The use of free verse, when paying attention to the poetic devices used in these poems, works as a tool that displays rebellion and the desire for freedom. The speaker insists on being detached from all forms of bondage set at by social, spiritual and political ideals.

She has an extreme perspective in terms of freedom in this poem in contrast to the other poem she feels no need to redefine the role of a woman in society she purely rebels and rejects any form of reform to the status quo. In summation she would rather have no capabilities to perform the things woman are expected to perform. In both poems the speakers used personification. However it is interesting that in observance one sees that these poets use alliteration to extricate themselves allusively from the personified actions even though they speak in the first person voice.

Lisa Combrinck in lines personifies her poems suggesting that the poems have the ability to shape words into slogans, salve-covered swabs, spears etc. With this poetic device Lisa Combrinck detaches herself as the writer and suggest that the poem in its personified abilities produced the poetry related to the racial struggle; in this instance she could be saying that the struggle poetry is written as a means to be relevant to society at the time, however in relation to the struggle she, out of the faculties of self, wrote this poem in contrast to the poems about the struggle as her concept of the actual struggle the one she personally views to be more important.

In this poem she surmises that women can eliminate apartheid with the power of femininity; the power of love. Eva Bezwoda personifies hands and deliberately speaks of them as their own entity. Having broken out of the constraints of apartheid racism he was able to rub shoulders with other African writers and intellectuals. He had a brief association with Ulli Beier, a German Africanist whose literary journal, Black Orpheus , made a huge impact amongst African writers in the English language.

Mphahlele launched his literary career with the publication of Man Must Live in The Lesane stories helped consolidate the short story tradition in South African literature that stands among the best in the world.

Two collections of short stories followed Man Must Live. The Living and the Dead appeared from West Africa in Turning to scholarship, in he published The African Image , based on his MA thesis in which he provides a history of African literature in South Africa, which he juxtaposes with an examination of the African character in literature by writers of European ancestry.

A second and revised edition appeared twelve years later. His engagement with literary and cultural production in the African Diaspora finds expression in Voices in the Whirlwind and Other Essays , which examines African and African-American literature in relation to the Western tradition. His career as a novelist produced The Wanderers , a novel of exile originally submitted as a dissertation for his PhD in creative writing.

Written after his return from exile, it also seems to rationalise his decision to return to South Africa at the height of apartheid repression.

For a while Mphahlele worked with the Paris based Congress for Cultural Freedom, organising conferences and workshops on education, literature, arts and culture. He was instrumental in establishing the Chemchemi Creative Centre in Kenya and the Mbari Club in Nigeria that became the hub of activity in African arts and culture. During the mid s the Congress for Cultural Freedom was exposed as a CIA front organisation, employed to sow dissent amongst artists in the Soviet Union and other east European countries.

Its activities on the African continent were probably as suspect. The journal, Encounter , published by this body, swiftly lost credibility and has since disappeared. In a career spawning sixty years, Mphahlele received many international awards, among them: In , he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in literature.

In President Nelson Mandela awarded him the Order. Twenty years later, amidst much controversy, he returned to South Africa, feeling defeated by exile and yearning for home. His return to South Africa coincides with the last decade of the system that had sought so hard to destroy him. He devoted himself to literature and cultural work, eschewing hard politics.

Skip to main content. South African History Online. A Land Dispossession History ss. A history of Apartheid in South Africa Land: This day in History South African history timeline Pre s s s s s s.

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Write a comparative essay in which you provide a close critical analysis of Lisa Combrinck ‘To the Reader and Eva Bezwoda’s ‘A Woman’s Hands’. You should discuss each poet’s treatment of themes relating to womanhood and the desire for freedom. Considering relevant contextual issues as and read where appropriate. University of the .

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municipal cultural policy and development in south africa: a study of the city of tshwane metropolitan municipality. by. lebogang lancelot nawa. African Studies • Middle Eastern Studies • South Asian Studies Major and Concentration The MESAAS tracks Language Study Academic Advising Senior Thesis and Honors Career Advising. The undergraduate program in Middle East, South Asian, and African Studies offers you the opportunity to study in depth the cultures, ideas, histories, and .