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❶In the present stage of development circa , following the defeat of the uprisings across Europe in he felt that the Communist League should encourage the working class to unite with progressive elements of the rising bourgeoisie to defeat the feudal aristocracy on issues involving demands for governmental reforms, such as a constitutional republic with freely elected assemblies and universal male suffrage. In case you need a complicated order which requires numerous calculations and specific writing skills, please feel free to place a free inquiry now, so that we could check whether there is an available writer to complete an outstanding paper for you.

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We are self-assured about the quality of the papers that we produce. However, if you are not satisfied with our paper, we guarantee unlimited revisions. It is absolutely free and we do not charge additional money. This is the most extreme degree of externality that can be conceived. In the repulsion of the atoms, therefore, their materiality, which was posited in the fall in a straight line, and the form-determination, which was established in the declination, are united synthetically. Democritus, in contrast to Epicurus, transforms into an enforced motion, into an act of blind necessity, that which to Epicurus is the realisation of the concept of the atom.

He therefore sees in the repulsion only the material side, the fragmentation, the change, and not the ideal side, according to which all relation to something else is negated and motion is established as self-determination. This can be clearly seen from the fact that he conceives one and the same body divided through empty space into many parts quite sensuously, like gold broken up into pieces.

Aristotle correctly argues against him: For if each of the elements is forcibly moved by the other, then it is still necessary that each should have also a natural motion, outside which is the enforced one. And this first motion must not be enforced but natural. Otherwise the procedure goes on to infinity.

Epicurus was therefore the first to grasp the essence of the repulsion — even if only in sensuous form, whereas Democritus only knew of its material existence. Hence we find also more concrete forms of the repulsion applied by Epicurus.

Part II, Chapter 2: Plutarch, On the Sentiments of the Philosophers, p. Since even if he introduced some alterations, for instance the swerve of the atoms of which I spoke just now He Epicurus believes that these same indivisible solid bodies are borne by their own weight perpendicularly downward, which he holds is the natural motion of all bodies; but thereupon this clever fellow, encountering the difficulty that if they all travelled downwards in a straight fine, and, as I said, perpendicularly, no one atom would ever he able to overtake any other atom, accordingly introduced an idea of his own invention: Epicurus saw that if the atoms travelled downwards by their own weight, we should have no freedom of the will, since the motion of the atoms would he determined by necessity.

He therefore invented a device to escape from determinism the point had apparently escaped the notice of Democritus: This defence discredits him more than if he had had to abandon his original position.

Cicero, On Fate, x []. Bayle, Dictionnaire historique et critique Historical and Critical Dictionary , art. Cl Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, 1 1, ff. Again, if all movement is always interconnected, the new rising from the old in a determinate order Cl Aristotle, On the Soul, I, 4 [, ]. How are we to imagine a unit [monad] being moved? What sort of movement can be attributed to what is without parts or internal differences?

If the unit is both originative of movement and itself capable of being moved, it must contain differences. Eurther, since they say a moving line generates a surface and a moving point a line, the movements of the psychic units must be lines. Cl Diogenes Laertius, X, The atoms are in continual motion. Eor, if all the atoms swerve, none will ever come to cohere together; or if some swerve while others travel in a straight line, by their own natural tendency, in the first place this will be tantamount to assigning to the atoms their different spheres of action, some to travel straight and some sideways Cicero, On Fate, x [22].

Also he is compelled to profess in reality, if not quite explicitly, that this swerve takes place without cause For they do not agree with Epicurus that the atom swerves somewhat, since he introduces a motion without cause out of the non-being.

The swerving is itself an arbitrary fiction for Epicurus says the atoms swerve without a cause, yet this is a capital offence in a natural philosopher, to speak of something taking place uncaused]. Then also he gratuitously deprives the atoms of what he himself declared to be the natural motion of all heavy bodies, namely, movement in a straight line downwards Eor the end of all our actions is to be free from pain and fear.

Epicurus too makes a similar statement to the effect that the Good is a thing that arises out of your very escape from evil Epicurus also says that the removal of pain is pleasure Sencea, On Benefits, IV [,4, 1 1, p. Yes, and therefore God does not give benefits, but, free from all care and unconcerned about us, he turns his back on the world Well then, what meat and drink, what harmonies of music and flowers of various colours, what delights of touch and smell will you assign to the gods, so as to keep them steeped in pleasure?

Why, what reason have you for maintaining that men owe worship to the gods, if the gods not only pay no regard to men, but care for nothing and do nothing at all? Instead, it puts us in the same state of mind with regard to the gods, of neither being alarmed nor rejoicing, that we have regarding the Hyrcanian fish.

We expect nothing from them either good or evil. If it were not for this swerve, everything would fall downwards like rain-drops through the abyss of space.

No collision would take place and no impact of atom on atom would he created anything, created. So also in the atoms But the fact that the mind itself has no internal necessity to determine its every act and compel it to suffer in helpless passivity-this is due to the slight swerve of the atoms If the whole is not [ , 1] If the whole is not continuous, but exists, as Democritus and Leucippus think, in the form of parts separated by void, there must necessarily be one movement of all the multitude.

Hence Leucippus and Democritus, who say that the primary bodies are in perpetual movement in the void or infinite, may be asked to explain the manner of their motion and the kind of movement which is natural to them. For if the various elements are constrained by one another to move as they do, each must still have a natural movement which the constrained contravenes, and the prime mover must cause motion not by constraint but naturally.

If there is no ultimate natural cause of movement and each preceding term in the series is always moved by constraint, we shall have an infinite process. Those animals which are incapable of making covenants with one another, to the end that they may neither inflict nor suffer harm, are without either justice or injustice.

And those tribes which either could not or would not form mutual covenants to the same end are in like case. There never was an absolute justice, but only an agreement made in reciprocal intercourse, in whatever localities, now and again, from time to time, providing against the infliction or suffering of harm. The Qualities of the Atom It contradicts the concept of the atom that the atom should have properties, because, as Epicurus says, every property is variable but the atoms do not change.

Indeed, the many atoms of repulsion separated by sensuous space must necessarily be immediately dijferent from one another smdfrom their pure essence, i. If this were truly so, how is one to invalidate the evidence of Lucretius, Plutarch, and indeed of all other authors who speak of Epicurus? Moreover, Diogenes Laertius mentions the qualities of the atom not in two, but in ten paragraphs: Through the qualities the atom acquires an existence which contradicts its concept; it is assumed as an externalised being different from its essence.

It is this contradiction which mainly interests Epicurus. Hence, as soon as he posits a property and thus draws the consequence of the material nature of the atom, he counterposits at the same time determinations which again destroy this property in its own sphere and validate instead the concept of the atom.

He therefore determines all properties in such a way that they contradict themselves. Democritus, on the other hand, nowhere considers the properties in relation to the atom itself, nor does he objectify the contradiction between concept and existence which is inherent in them.

His whole interest lies rather in representing the qualities in relation to concrete nature, which is to be formed out of them. To him they are merely hypotheses to explain the plurality. It follows that the concept of the atom has nothing to do with them. In order to prove our assertion it is first of all necessary to elucidate the sources which here seem to contradict one another.

In the treatise De placitis philosophorum we read: Democritus only assumed two: Epicurus added weight as the third. The same passage is repeated word for word in the Praeparatio evangelica of Eusebius.

Directly contrary stands Aristotle who, in the book De generations et corruptions, attributes to the atoms of Democritus difference in weight. In his Geschichte der alten Philosophie, Ritter, basing himself on the authority of Aristotle, rejects the assertions of Plutarch, Eusebius and Stobaeus. Let us see whether these passages are really so contradictory. In the passage cited, Aristotle does not speak of the qualities of the atom ex professo. Eor the underlying body is one and the same with respect to matter, but it differs in rhysmos, meaning shape, in trope, meaning position, or in diathige, meaning arrangement.

Weight is not mentioned as a property of the Democritean atoms. The fragmented pieces of matter, kept apart by the void, must have special forms, and these are quite externally perceived from the observation of space. This emerges even more clearly from the following passage of Aristotle: These are the basis of being as matter, just as those who assume only one fundamental substance generate all other things by its affections, assuming rarity and density as the principles of qualities-in the same way Leucippus and Democritus also teach that the differences between the atoms are the causes of the other things, for the underlying being differs only by rhysmos, diathige and trope It is evident from this quotation that Democritus considers the properties of the atom only in relation to the formation of the differences in the world of appearances, and not in relation to the atom itself, it follows further that Democritus does not single out weight as an essential property of the atoms.

For him weight is taken for granted, since everything corporeal has weight. In the same way, according to him, even size is not a basic quality.

It is an accidental determination which is already given to the atoms together with figure. Only the diversity of the figures is of interest to Democritus, since nothing more is contained in shape, position and arrangement.

Size, shape and weight, by being combined as they are by Epicurus, are differences which the atom in itself possesses. Shape, position and arrangement are differences which the atom possesses in relation to something else.

Whereas we find in Democritus mere hypothetical determinations to explain the world of appearances, in Epicurus the consequence of the principle itself will be presented to us.

We shall therefore discuss in detail his determinations of the properties of the atom. First of all, the atoms have size. Rosinius, in his notes on the fragments of Epicurus; therefore translates one passage incorrectly and completely ignores the other, when he says: On the other hand, Eusebius, or rather the Alexandrian bishop Dionysius, from whom he takes excerpts, contradicts himself; for in the same book we read that Democritus assumed as the principles of nature indivisible bodies perceptible through reason.

Democritus was not aware of the contradiction; he did not pay attention to it, whereas it was the chief interest of Epicurus. The second property of the Epicurean atoms is shape. But this determination also contradicts the concept of the atom, and its opposite must be assumed.

Abstract individuality is abstract identity-to-itself and therefore without shape. The differences in the shape of the atoms cannot, therefore, be determinedly although they are not absolutely infinite. This obviously negates again the determination of the shape, because a shape which no longer differs from another is not shape.

Hence, once the atoms are brought into the realm of presentation, they must also have weight. But weight also directly contradicts the concept of the atom, because it is the individuality of matter as an ideal point which lies outside matter.

But the atom is itself this individuality, as it were the centre of gravity presented as an individual existence. Eurthermore since weight belongs only to that atom which is different from the other, hence externalised and endowed with properties, then it is clear that where the atoms are not thought of as many in their differentiation from one another, but only in relation to the void, the determination of weight ceases to exist.

The atoms, as different as they may be in mass and shape, move therefore with equal speed in empty space. This has led to the assertions that only the conglomerations of the atoms are endowed with weight, but not the atoms themselves.

He thus gave us the science of atomistics. In Democritus, on the other hand, there is no realisation of the principle itself. He only maintains the material side and offers hypotheses for the benefit of empirical observation. Part II, Chapter 3: Atomoi archai and atoma stoicheia D Diogenes Laertius, X, For every quality changes, but the atoms do not change.

They must be kept far apart from the atoms, if we wish to provide the universe with imperishable foundations on which it may rest secure Democritus [acknowledged] but two: Epicurus added the third, to wit, weight, for he pronounced that it is necessary that bodies receive their motion from that impulsion which springs from weight Comp.

Sextus Empiricus, Against the Professors, p. He Democritus assigns a unique common nature of the body to all shapes; its parts are the atoms, which differ from each other in size and shape; for they have not only different shape but some of them are bigger, the others smaller. But each piece must, as we assert, have the same motion So that if it be weight that all possess, no body is, strictly speaking, light; and if lightness he universal, none is heavy. Moreover, whatever possesses weight or lightness will have its place either at one of the extremes or in the middle region.

Democritus seems to think there are three kinds of difference between things [atoms] ; the underlying body, the matter, is one and the same, but they differ either in rhythm, i. Leucippus and his associate Democritus say that the full and the empty are the elements, calling the one being and the other non-being-the full and solid being being, the empty non-being whence they say being no more is than non-being, because the solid no more is than the empty ; and they make these the material causes of things.

And as those who make the underlying substance one generate all other things by its modifications, supposing the rare and the dense to be the sources of modifications, in the same way these philosophers say the differences in the elements are the causes of all other qualities. These differences, they say, are three-shape and order and position. But to attribute any and every size to the atoms does not help to explain the differences of quality in things; moreover, in that case atoms would exist large enough to be perceived by us, which is never observed to occur; nor can we conceive how such an occurrence should be possible, i.

Again, you should not suppose that the atoms have any and every size On the analogy of things within our experience w e have declared that the atom has size; and this, small as it is, we have merely reproduced on a larger scale. But they differed in that one of them i. Stobaeus, Physical Selections, I, Plutarch, On the Sentiments of the philosophers, i, p.

Aristotle, On Becoming and Decaying, 1, 8 , Plutarch, On the Sentiments of the Philosophers, I, p. Moreover, we must hold that the atoms in fact possess none of the qualities belonging to the world which come under our observation, except shape, weight, and size, and the properties necessarily conjoined with shape.

Plutarch On the Sentiments of the Philosophers, l. The like atoms of each shape are absolutely infinite. Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, 11, Since the varieties of form are limited, the number of uniform atoms must be unlimited. Otherwise the totality of matter would be finite, which 1 have proved in my verses is not so. There is, further, another view-that of Leucippus and Democritus of Abdera-the implications of which are also unacceptable But they have never explained in detail the shapes of the various elements, except so, far as to allot the sphere to fire.

Air, water and the rest If it were not so, some of the atoms would have to be of infinite magnitude. Within the narrow limits of any single particle, there can be only a limited range of forms Variation in shape goes with increase in size. You cannot believe, therefore, that the atoms are distinguished by an infinity of forms The atoms move with equal speed, since the void makes way for the lightest and heaviest alike through all eternity When they are travelling through the void and meet with no resistance, the atoms must move with equal speed.

Neither will heavy atoms travel more quickly than small and light ones, so long as nothing meets them, nor will small atoms travel more quickly than large ones, provided they always find a passage suitable to their size; and provided that they meet with no obstruction.

But empty space can offer no resistance to any object in any quarter at any time, so as not to yield free passage as its own nature demands. Therefore, through undisturbed vacuum all bodies must travel at equal speed though impelled by unequal weights. Although Epicurus had perhaps never thought about this experiment, he [still] reached, led by reason, the same opinion about atoms that experiment has recently taught us. This opinion is that all bodies Thus he was of opinion that all atoms, however much they may differ in size and weight, move with an equal velocity.

The former are the atoms recognisable only through reason and do not occupy space. According to these conceptions one might think that Epicurus did not attribute any spatial properties to the atom. I therefore consider these atoms as belonging to the second species, those that have developed out of the former but can still be regarded again as elementary particles of the bodies. Let us look more closely at the passage which Schaubach cites from Diogenes Laertius. For instance such propositions that the All consists of bodies and non-corporeal nature, or that there are indivisible elements and other such statements.

Epicurus here teaches Pythocles, to whom he is writing, that the teaching about meteors differs from all other doctrines in physics, for example, that everything is either body or void, that there are indivisible basic elements.

It is obvious that there is here no reason to assume that it is a question of a second species of atoms. But this is quite out of the question. Lor example, in the letter to Herodotus we read: Among bodies some are compound, others the things out of which the compounds are made, and these latter are indivisible and unchangeable However, if it is thought an antinomy that bodies perceptible only to reason should be endowed with spatial qualities, then it is an even greater antinomy that the spatial qualities themselves can be perceived only through the intellect.

Eor the rest it is by no means claimed in these passages that the original atoms are without size, shape and weight. On the contrary, weight alone is mentioned as a distinctive characteristic of the atomoi archai and aroma stoicheia.

But we observed already in the preceding chapter that weight is applied only in regard to repulsion and the conglomerations arising therefrom. With the invention of the atoma stoicheia we also gain nothing.

It is just as difficult to pass from the atomoi archai to the aroma stoicheia as it is to ascribe properties directly to them. Nevertheless I do not deny such a differentiation entirely. I only deny that there are two different and fixed kinds of atoms. They are rather different determinations of one and the same kind. Before discussing this difference I would like to call attention to a procedure typical of Epicurus. He likes to assume the different determinations of a concept as different independent existences, just as his principle is the atom, so is the manner of his cognition itself atomistic.

Every moment of the development is at once. This procedure may be made clear by the following example. The infinite, to apeiron, or the infinitio, as Cicero translates it, is occasionally used by Epicurus as a particular nature; and precisely in the same passages in which we find the stoicheia described as a fixed fundamental substance, we also find the apeiron turned into something independent.

We find in fact three meanings of apeiron. Eirst, apeiron expresses for Epicurus a quality common to the atoms and the void. It means in this sense the infinitude of the All, which is infinite by virtue of the infinite multiplicity of the atoms, by virtue of the infinite size of the void.

Nevertheless, it is singled out as a particular existence, even set up as a specific nature alongside the principles whose determination it expresses.

The granting of the form of existence to different determinations has not resulted in understanding of their difference. Eor Democritus the atom means only stoicheion a material substrate. The distinction between the atom as arche and stoicheion as principle and foundation belongs to Epicurus. Its importance will be clear from what follows.

The contradiction between existence and essence, between matter and form, which is inherent in the concept of the atom, emerges in the individual atom itself once it is endowed with qualities. Through the quality the atom is alienated from its concept, but at the same time is perfected in its construction. It is from repulsion and the ensuing conglomerations of the qualified. In this transition from the world of essence to the world of appearance, the contradiction in the concept of the atom clearly reaches its harshest realisation.

For the atom is conceptually the absolute, essential form of nature. This absolute form has now been degraded to absolute matter, to the formless substrate of the world of appearance. The atoms are, it is true, the substance of nature,! Insofar as it proceeds to reality, it sinks down to the material basis which, as the bearer of a world of manifold relations, never exists but in forms which are indifferent and external to it.

This is a necessary consequence, since the atom, presupposed as abstractly individual and complete, cannot actualise itself as the idealising and pervading power of this manifold. Abstract individuality is freedom from being, not freedom in being. It cannot shine in the light of being. This is an element in which this individuality loses its character and becomes material.

For this reason the atom does not enter into the daylight of appearances! The atom as such only exists in the void. The death of nature has thus become its immortal substance; and Lucretius correctly exclaims: When death immortal claims his mortal life De verum nature III, But the fact that Epicurus grasps the contradiction at this its highest peak and objectives it, and therefore distinguishes the atom where it becomes the basis of appearance as stoicheion from the atom as it exists in the void as arche — this constitutes his philosophical difference from Democritus, who only objectives the one moment.

This is the same distinction which in the world of essence, in the realm of the atoms and of the void, separates Epicurus from Democritus.

However, since only the atom with qualities is the complete one, since the world of appearance can only emerge from the atom which is complete and alienated from its concept, Epicurus expresses this by stating that only the qualified atom becomes stoicheion or only the atomon stoicheion is endowed with qualities.

In the same way we must explain this expression in Plutarch, On the Sentiments of the Philosophers, I, p. That which cannot be divided in space is not therefore outside of space or without spatial relation. But it is impossible to conceive anything that is incorporeal as self-existent, except empty space.

There is a difference, according to them i. Similarly those who speak of the elements of bodies mean the things into which bodies are ultimately divided, while they are no longer divided into other things differing in kind; Plutarch, Reply to Colotes, 1 1 The same Epicurus asserts that there are four other natural beings which are immortal-of this sort are atoms, the vacuum, the infinite and the similar parts; and these last are- [called] homoeomerias and likewise elements. Epicurus [thinks that] bodies are not to be limited, but the first bodies are simple bodies, and all those composed of them possess weight Stobacus, Physical Selections, 1, p.

Metrodoms, the teacher of Epicurus, [says] Again, the sum of things is infinite Moreover, the sum of things is unlimited both by reason of the multitude of the atoms and the -tent of the void. Now look at the sort of first principles [you People adopt] to account for generation: But the causes are the atoms or the elements. Stobacus, physical Selections, I, p. Eor the same elements compose sky, sea and lands, rivers and sun, crops, trees and animals Moreover, the sum total of things was always such as it is now, and such it will ever remain.

Eor there is nothing into which it can change. Eor outside the sum of things there is nothing which could enter into it and bring about the change The whole of being consists of bodies These elements are indivisible and unchangeable, and necessarily so, if things are not all to be destroyed and pass into non-existence, but are to be strong enough to endure when the composite bodies are broken up, because they possess a solid nature and are incapable of being anywhere or anyhow dissolved.

It is clear, then, that he [Epicurus] also makes the worlds perishable, as their parts are subject to change. Lucretius, V, May reason rather than the event itself convince you that the whole world can collapse with one ear-splitting crack! It lies tremendously open and confronts them with a yawning chasm.

On the Difference between Democritean and Epicurean Physics In Detail Chapter Four Time Since in the atom matter, as pure relationship to itself, is exempted from all relativity and changeability, it follows immediately that time has to be excluded from the concept of the atom, the world of essence.

For matter is eternal and independent only insofar as in it abstraction is made of the time moment. On this Democritus and Epicurus agree. But they differ in regard to the manner in which time, removed from the world of atoms, is now determined, whither it is transferred. For Democritus time has neither significance nor necessity for the system. He explains time in order to negate it [aufzuheben]. Time itself offers proof that not everything need have an origin, a moment of beginning.

There is something more profound to be recognised in this notion. The imagining intellect that does not grasp the independence of substance inquires into its becoming in time. It fails to grasp that by making substance temporal it also makes time substantial and thus negates its concept, because time made absolute is no longer temporal.

But this solution is unsatisfactory from another point of view. Time excluded from the world of essence is transferred into the self-consciousness of the philosophising subject but does not make any contact with the world itself.

Quite otherwise with Epicurus. Time, excluded from the world of essence, becomes for him the absolute form of appearance. That is to say, time is determined as accidens of the accidens. The accidens is the change of substance in general. The accidens of the accidens is the change as reflecting in itself, the change as change.

This pure form of the world of appearance is time. If I consider composition in terms of its being, then the atom exists beyond it, in the void, in the imagination. If I consider the atom in terms of its concept, then composition either does not exist at all or exists only in the subjective imagination. For composition is a relationship in which the atoms, independent, self-enclosed, as it were uninterested in one another, have likewise no relationship to one another.

Time, in contrast, the change of the finite to the extent that change is posited as change, is just as much the real form which separates appearance from essence, and posits it as appearance, while leading it back into essence. Composition expresses merely the materiality of the atoms as well as of nature emerging from them. Time, in contrast, is in the world of appearance what the concept of the atom is in the world of essence, namely, the abstraction, destruction and reduction of all determined being into being-for-itself.

The following consequences can be drawn from these observations. First, Epicurus makes the contradiction between matter and form the characteristic of the nature of appearance, which thus becomes the counter-image of the nature of essence, the atom. This is done by time being opposed to space, the active form of appearance to the passive form.

Second, Epicurus was the first to grasp appearance as appearance, that is, as alienation of the essence, activating itself in its reality as such an alienation. On the other hand, for Democritus, who considers composition as the only form of the nature of appearance, appearance does not by itself show that it is appearance, something different from essence.

Thus when appearance is considered in terms of its existence, essence becomes totally blended [konfundiert] with it; when considered in terms of its concept, essence is totally separated from existence, so that it descends to the level of subjective semblance. The composition behaves indifferently and materially towards its essential foundations. Time, on the other hand, is the fire of essence, eternally consuming appearance, and stamping it with dependence and non-essence.

Finally, since according to Epicurus time is change as change, the reflection of appearance in itself, the nature of appearance is justly posited as objective, sensation is justly made the real criterion of concrete nature, although the atom, its foundation, is only perceived through reason. Indeed, time being the abstract form of sensation, according to the atomism of Epicurean consciousness the necessity arises for it to be fixed as a nature having a separate existence within nature.

The changeability of the sensuous world, its change as change, this reflection of appearance in itself which constitutes the concept of time, has its separate existence in conscious sensuousness. Human sensuousness is therefore embodied time, the existing reflection of the sensuous world in itself Just as this follows immediately from the definition of the concept of time in Epicurus, so it can also be quite definitely demonstrated in detail.

In the letter from Epicurus to Herodotus time is so defined that it emerges when the accidentals of bodies, perceived by the senses, are thought of as accidentals. Sensuous perception reflected in itself is thus here the source of time and time itself. Hence time cannot be defined by analogy nor can anything else be said about it, but it is necessary to keep firmly to the Enargie itself; for sensuous perception reflected in itself is time itself, and there is no going beyond it. The reflection of the accidentals in sensuous perception and their reflection in themselves are hence posited as one and the same.

Because of this interconnection between time and sensuousness, the eidola [images], equally found in Democritus, also acquire a more consistent status. The eidola are the forms of natural bodies which, as surfaces, as it were detach themselves like skins and transfer these bodies into appearance.

These forms of the things stream constantly forth from them and penetrate into the senses and in precisely this-way allow the objects to appear. Thus in hearing nature hears itself, in smelling it smells itself, in seeing it sees itself. In Democritus this is an inconsistency, since appearance is only subjective; in Epicurus it is a necessary consequence, since sensuousness is the reflection of the world of appearance in itself, its embodied time. Finally, the interconnection between sensuousness and time is revealed in such a way that the temporal character of things and their appearance to the senses are posited as intrinsically One.

For it is precisely because bodies appear to the senses that they pass away. Indeed, the eidola, by constantly separating themselves from the bodies and flowing into the senses, by having their sensuous existence outside themselves as another nature, by not returning into themselves, that is, out of the diremption, dissolve and pass away. Hence the senses are the only criteria in concrete nature, just as abstract reason is the only criterion in the world of the atoms.

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Main currents of Marxism: The Rhetoric of interpretation and the interpretation of rhetoric. Ideology and modern culture: Swatos; Peter Kivisto 28 February Encyclopedia of religion and society.

Turner 2 September Making sense of Marx. Critique of the Gotha Programme". This being the case, we must also recognise the fact that in most countries on the Continent the lever of our revolution must be force; it is force to which we must some day appeal to erect the rule of labour.

University of Chicago Press. Originally published in Neue Rheinische Zeitung , no. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. An Invitation to Social and Sociological Theory. Retrieved 25 March Classical and modern social theory. An Essay on Interpretation. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, , p. From Hegel to Nietzsche. Columbia University Press, , p.

His Life and Environment. Critical Studies in Mass Communication. Introduction to Media Teaching , Palgrave Macmillan. Main Currents of Marxism: Main Currents in Sociological Thought. Considerations on Western Marxism. How to Change the World: Marx and Marxism, — London: Little, Brown, , — Marxism and the History of Art: From William Morris to the New Left.

Retrieved 8 January The Nature of Cuban Socialism". Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved 5 May Retrieved 6 May Tales of Marx and Marxism. A Biography fourth edition. Nicolaievsky, Boris ; Maenchen-Helfen, Otto []. Gwenda David and Eric Mosbacher. Harmondsworth and New York: Schwarzschild, Leopold []. Life and Legend of Karl Marx. Stedman Jones, Gareth The Story of a Great Discovery: How Karl Marx wrote "Capital".

Biographies [ edit ] Main article: Biographies of Karl Marx. His Life and Environment Karl Marx: His Life and Thought. Communist League International Workingmens Association. Articles related to Karl Marx.

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Karl Marx’s Doctoral Dissertation

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Full text of Karl Marx's Doctoral Thesis on the Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature Doctoral Dissertation of Karl Marx Karl Marx Internet Archive.

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Feb 17,  · Doctoral Dissertation of Karl Marx — Chapter 1 Karl Marx The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature Part One: Difference between the Democritean and Epicurean Marx's Doctoral Dissertation – jstor cultivating important persons who could help him.

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how to find dissertations Doctoral Dissertation Karl Marx how to write medical paper homework help/10(). In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content. The Marxism of Marx's Doctoral Dissertation JOHN L. STANLEY ALTHOUGH THE AMOUNT OF SCHOLARSHIP on Marx's doctoral dissertation is small in comparison to what has been done in regard to his later writings, interpretation of this earliest systematic work is not inconsequential for our understanding of the controversies .