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Bullet points making the final cut then are organized into an easy-to-follow writing template. This approach to academic writing has shown value beyond helping fellows pare down dissertations to journal manuscripts; at our institution, it has also generally become a popular method for preparing manuscripts and grant applications. Recent doctoral program graduates, junior faculty, and professionals who primarily engage in practice often find the prospect of academic writing daunting and mysterious.

The first such challenge many were encouraged to undertake was publishing their doctoral dissertation. Yet dissertations usually are tomes that laboriously detail minutiae of limited relevance to a concise, publication-ready report of the research that was conducted.

The exercises reported herein were developed while assisting fellows and junior faculty in adapting their dissertations so that they might be publishable in a peer-reviewed journal. These strategies also have proven useful in preparing manuscripts of many other types, e. Less experienced writers, mentors of less experienced writers, and anyone who needs some added structure or confidence in putting pen to paper may benefit from following the simple yet effective methods described below.

Successfully publishing that first article can overcome procrastination and whet the appetite to become an occasional or frequent contributor to the scientific literature.

For many, the most readily available avenue for taking that first step is to adapt their dissertation for publication. But it is not a representative experience. For the most part, academic writing is quite unlike writing your dissertation. While many graduates are encouraged by their dissertation committees to publish their work, the distractions and challenges that arise in fellowships or professional employment typically prevent graduates from doing so. Apart from the impediments of new work responsibilities, the challenge of transforming a dissertation of hundreds of pages to a journal manuscript of two or three dozen can feel insurmountable.

There are doubtless tens of thousands of valuable scientific endeavors recorded in nicely bound but rarely opened dissertation books tucked away on university shelves. Their terse mention in Dissertation Abstracts International is unlikely to lead to wider scientific exposure, in most cases. It may seem a Herculean task to pare down a dissertation to the size of a journal manuscript.

But that is exactly what must be done if the wider scientific community is to benefit from the fine work that doctoral students often produce. The previous sentence is an important one. The first step in manuscript preparation is believing that you have something of value to write about.

Too often, young professionals underestimate the value of their research and other scholarly endeavors, including innovative or insightful clinical practice. Almost any thoughtfully considered foray into research or unique clinical experience is a story others would want to know about.

Virtually any new thought, new approach, or new perspective in a professional field is publishable, whether it emerged via a formal research study, term paper, speech, case presentation, or experience alone. Career academics learn to value the many varied products of their minds, small and large, singular or collaborative, and they strive to publish anything that might be of interest or value to their varied audiences. It is highly unlikely that a doctoral dissertation has so little scholarly value that professionals in that field of study would not be interested in reading about it in some published form.

The challenge is how to take the behemoth of the dissertation and transform it into a svelte, pithy, and publishable manuscript. This is not simply a matter of removing enough content to meet the page limits of a given journal.

The entire organization and thrust of the manuscript must be reconceptualized. The goals and objectives of a dissertation are quite different from the goals and objectives of a journal article.

Dissertations are lengthy for the same reason that legal trials often are lengthy — the writer is providing reams of evidence, i. Such laborious justification regarding what was or was not done, or considered, in a research project — leaving no conceptual stone unturned — is not expected nor appropriate to journal manuscripts.

Journal reviewers do not need or want the heavy process-focused information that dissertation committees do. Journal reviewers want to see that one is knowledgeable but briefly so about the existing literature in the topic area, that the methods are reasonable and replicable if someone desires to try and that the results support the conclusions.

They also want to see that a manuscript offers a contribution to the field, although this contribution can be and typically is very small. Accomplishing these writing objectives requires far less space than meeting the process objectives of a dissertation. First, however, a method for selecting the most appropriate journal — the publication target — is described.

While it is possible to write a manuscript first and then to seek an appropriate publication outlet, it is preferable to select the targeted publication beforehand, because the style and parameters of the chosen publication should guide the approach to writing. The first step in selecting a journal where to submit a manuscript is to consider as many fields of study that might pertain to the planned article. Do not worry at this point about the main focus of the manuscript and what field of study that it pertains to.

Think broadly at this stage; the journal choices can be narrowed at a later time. For example, my field of study happens to be deaf individuals. I can always inform my colleagues in the small deafness field to an article that I have published elsewhere. Informing and motivating a broader audience to find something that I have published in an obscure deaf journal is a lot more difficult.

If making a list of fields of study that overlap with the manuscript content seems difficult, the following exercise might help. Pretend that the dissertation or other work product is going to be made into a newspaper story from the s. Steamship Carpathia Rescues Hundreds Roles of Saved and Missing Printing numerous headlines stimulated a wider variety of people to buy the newspaper.

Similarly, the headlines that could be written about the dissertation or other work product will suggest different types of readers, and therefore journals, to consider. This should not take long at all. The reference list from the dissertation or thesis may provide clues to journals that publish in these topic areas.

Now, there should be a list of around 10 or 15 journals under consideration. Next, again using advice from librarians, on-line resources, or colleagues, list some of the major characteristics of each of these journals.

Characteristics to consider include: Competitiveness is a very important characteristic in making the decision about which journal to target the manuscript. Librarians or journal editors themselves will readily provide you with these competitiveness indicators.

For example, the American Psychological Association APA publishes an annual report containing most of this information regarding the journals it publishes, usually in the August archival issue of the American Psychologist. Data from 28 APA journals were presented in the most recent report 1.

None of the above journal characteristics are necessarily good or bad. Their importance is in matching the manuscript optimally to the goals and characteristics of the journal. Many times, I write manuscripts that would not be appropriate for a highly competitive or widely distributed journal. For example, I once gave a speech that I thought was unique and deserved to be in print. I chose a journal with limited circulation, one that was not very competitive but was happy to receive my submission.

Now, I frequently distribute copies of that article and it is another peer-reviewed publication on my resume. Now it is time to narrow down the list of potential journals by comparing their characteristics to those of the dissertation or other existing or hypothesized work product. This is a multi-step process. To begin, consider the ultimate goal in publishing the manuscript. Then, focus on journals that are geared toward clinicians and be prepared to write a short article, as clinicians are busy people.

Is it to inform a particular group e. Then, focus on journals that are commonly read by those audiences. Is the content applicable to a wide audience? Then focus on journals that are generalized, not specialty journals, and journals that have wide circulation.

However, these are often among the most competitive journals. Alternately, a very specialized topic may demand a specialized journal. Is the goal to introduce an audience to a topic that they would not normally think or care about? Then, consider publishing in a journal geared toward audiences who are interested in the general topic of the manuscript e.

Is the goal simply to get something into print that is worthwhile but not particularly sophisticated or influential, rather than never publish it at all? That is a fine goal; a less competitive journal may be a wise choice in that situation.

Compare the list of journal characteristics to these and other such questions, noting in each case whether a given journal on the list seems to be advantageous, disadvantageous, or neutral. This process should narrow down the list of journals by at least half, leaving you with no more than 5 — 7 journals still under consideration. Some journals publish this in each issue, others only once per year.

Most journals will have this document on their website. Study that page for additional information that can further narrow the list of journal options.

The instructions page may contain lists of topics that are welcomed or discouraged, information on page limits, and descriptions of the different types of manuscripts it welcomes e. Some journals have several sections, each one devoted to a different type of manuscript. Do not limit the conceptualization of journal-worthy publications to full-fledged research studies. There are many types of articles that journals welcome.

Certainly, there is a style that will match any fresh idea or experience one would like to impart, no matter how much that idea or experience differs from a conventional research study.

After considering the above factors as they relate to the dissertation or intended manuscript, narrow down the journal options to three or fewer. If the final choice is not obvious by now, it may be helpful to contact the journal editor to discuss the nature of the intended submission and whether or not the editor thinks it is appropriate for the publication. Editors are proud of their journals and, in some sense, are like talent scouts in that they are always on the lookout for appropriate, quality submissions, especially from new authors.

Most will give generously of their time and advise or guide in this matter. Send the editor a brief e-mail describing the essential features of the proposed manuscript i. This is a more neutral approach than attaching a copy of the manuscript and asking or implying that the editor should review the entire article.

This brief e-mail is simply seeking a quick opinion on whether a manuscript such as the one planned or actually completed would be welcome for review. If that particular journal does not seem appropriate, the editor may advise on how to alter the manuscript so that it would be more appropriate or give advice on alternative publication outlets that would be more appropriate.

After a final decision has been made on the most appropriate journal for submission, ensure that the manuscript conforms to the characteristics, style, and preferences of the chosen journal.

Also, follow exactly the instructions given to potential authors. The following method has proven valuable in helping writers pare down their dissertations to manageable size, yielding a manuscript that reflects the most essential elements of the dissertation but also complements the characteristics, style, and preferences of the journal that was chosen as the preferred publication outlet.

Finally, the remaining bullet points are organized according to a functional outline of the manuscript. The manuscript first begins to take shape through compiling a list of several dozen or so bullet points, each one identifying a fact, issue, finding, or other detail that must be written about. These bullet points are chosen and organized in a fashion that will allow the manuscript to flow smoothly and logically for the intended reader.

It is imperative to understand that the manuscript is not being written for yourself nor for a dissertation committee nor even for the journal editor. The manuscript is being written for the average reader of the chosen journal. Do not begin this exercise until carefully considering what this average reader is like and, in particular, what they need to know and do not need to know e.

This image of the average reader should emerge readily from the previous investigation into the characteristics of the journal selected for the submission. For example, when writing for a deafness-related journal, I do not need to plan on a bullet point explaining how the linguistic structure of American Sign Language ASL differs markedly from English.

Remember that your conclusion is the final opportunity to remind your readers why your research study stands out from the crowd. A good conclusion relates back to the main research question you posed in the beginning, as well as your thesis statement or hypothesis.

Putting a dissertation together can seem intimidating. Complete dissertations contain a multitude of sections, or chapters. Full dissertations are usually written at the PhD level and the average length can range between one-hundred to two-hundred pages. Dissertation chapters go through several revisions while the candidate works on each piece with an academic supervisor.

Before you write the abstract, you should have a good idea and solid outline of what you want to research. Be prepared to run through several revisions, depending on feedback from your academic committee, academic supervisor, or as changes occur to other portions of the dissertation.

Briefly state what your general topic is about and give some background information on it. Depending on the academic discipline, the thesis could be stated in the form of a hypothesis. In general, your thesis should be one sentence and state what results you believe to be true and why. Provide a brief analysis of the data and relate the results back to your thesis.

Writing the introduction for a dissertation is far more intensive than that of a typical essay or research paper. With a dissertation, save the final draft of the introduction for last.

This way you can pull out the most important pieces of information from each section of the dissertation. Define your main research problem or question. You need to be succinct, but also provide enough background on the problem or question to allow your audience to grasp the subject matter.

Include a summary of your actual research study, including the data results. You will also want to include a summary of your literature review or at least a few citations from the literature that are a good representation of the existing research on your topic. Remember to not rely too heavily on citations, but to be strategic about which ones you use and how you use them. Include information on whether the data results supported or disproved your thesis, as well as whether the results raised additional questions.

Were there any restrictions to the study that might have impacted the results? For example, are you going to be looking at the theoretical or practical side?

Are you going to be looking for common ground and patterns, or take on the role of critic and sort through what is feasible in practice and what is not? Finally, Decide what information and analysis to include in your writing, and what to omit. First, decide what your objective is in order to determine the problem the literature review will address. To critically evaluate the role of the electoral college in the national presidential election.

Your chosen scope will come into play during this stage. On the other hand, if you choose a narrowed focus, you could spend the same amount of time trying to find sources that fit your criteria. Beyond searching for sources through electronic databases, remember to consult your peers and academic advisors. Also, see if you can locate the sources cited in some of the references you initially find. Determine what to take and what will best serve the purpose of the review, going back to your objective and problem.

For this example, a historical structure would be appropriate as you could start with the earliest examples and work your way through to the present. Your point of view is taking the perspective of one side, so in this case it would also be appropriate to cite information that takes the other side of the argument and then critically evaluate the validity of that information.

You would likely need to discredit the validity by citing opposing evidence. You can analyze the information using quantitative methods, qualitative methods, or a mixture of both. This stage involves revising the information, including what is kept intact, and what is tweaked, reduced and eliminated. Peer reviews and field experts can be an invaluable resource during this stage, especially prior to submitting the review to an academic committee.

You may need multiple revisions once the academic committee or dissertation supervisor reviews your work. Do not be discouraged by the revision process, as the supervisor and committee are there to help refine your dissertation to increase its chances of becoming publishable material.

After you finish your literature review, look at the notes you made about the information. What unfulfilled question appears to be the most promising in terms of testability?

A restricted diet of 1, to 1, calories per day leads to a simultaneous decrease in body fat percentage, overall weight, and muscle weight percentages. A restricted diet of 1, to 1, calories per day does not lead to a simultaneous decrease in body fat percentage, overall weight, and muscle weight percentages.

Is your question going to be making a prediction, describing an observation, or describing a pattern? This will determine how you write the hypothesis and shape it. The independent variable can best be identified by isolating what factor is causing a difference, or what factor represents a polar-opposite difference. Be sure to sync your hypothesis with your methodology covered below. It might also make sense to have access to participants who currently have an unhealthy or high percentage of body fat.

The next section should explain how the data was collected and how the data was analyzed. Be sure to also give a description of your technique. Explain why your data is reliable and others can trust its accuracy. Also, explain the reasoning behind limitations to your sample size and analysis. An example would be why only one type of demographic was surveyed.

Think about how you want to organize your discussion into various sections, either by the eight points of discussion mentioned previously in this guide or by combining some of those points into larger chunks. Also, determine what results you will present in graphs and charts. Will those be inserted into the body of the discussion or be included in the appendices? Be sure to evaluate the meaning of your results and discuss whether those meanings are significant.

The second set of sections should discuss whether personal or outside biases impacted the results. While you should work to mitigate these biases, acknowledge any suspicion of them. Spend time showing your reader why your results are relevant, and why and how the results could impact the field. A discussion of the limitations should state the limitation s in terms of the methodology or approach, followed by an explanation of how the methodology or approach could be expanded.

Did your results bring up any questions the results themselves were unable to answer? Discuss those questions here and also suggest that these questions could be developed into future research studies. Alternatively, did your results indicate the need for a follow-up study?

If so, briefly discuss what that follow-up study will need to entail. The conclusion should instill the main idea you want your readers to take away from your study. You should discuss your dissertation structure and content with an academic advisor or supervisory committee. Samples of written dissertation discussions can also help immensely, since samples demonstrate structure, content and tone.

Also, by presenting your main findings before your secondary findings, your readers can get a better sense of what they can take away from your research. The main findings should not only be more prevalent in terms of recurrence, but also significance. Secondary findings will not necessarily make as much of an impact as your main findings, but are either worth mentioning or raise questions about the need for additional research.

The roadmap you provide to your readers should be contained within the first paragraph of the results section. Tell readers exactly what they can expect to read.

Ideally, the roadmap will consist of one paragraph and provide readers with a complete outline of your results section. The data results you captured that reflect on your study in a positive way can be the beginning of your second paragraph.

Your primary results in the positive category should go first. If you are presenting visual aids in the appendices, make sure you refer to them in the paragraph. The data results that retract from your study will need to be presented in a similar fashion. The best way to determine what is primary versus what is secondary is to ask whether the results tie in with your research question.

Do the results provide an answer to the research question? The main point to remember is not to confuse the results section with the discussion section, if they need to be separate. Pull out the main points of each section, revisit your thesis, look for weaknesses you can strengthen, and think about your recommendations and how your research is different from others. Think about why your research and its results matter, not only to you and your academic discipline, but to the community at large.

In other words, how does it make a difference? The first part of the conclusion section needs to review the most significant information from each section of the dissertation. How will this data have an effect? What do you believe that effect will be?

Were they what you expected and why? Do the results prove an idea that was previously unproven or thought of as unlikely? Think about these questions when in the final writing stage, or editing stage of your dissertation. The concluding paragraphs should state the most significant factor about your study and how future researchers could possibly expand upon it.

Writing a conclusion can be both simple and complex. Writing a full dissertation can be an exhaustive, but exhilarating process. The task will probably seem daunting, but luckily there are several outside resources including our writer help section , and our dissertation help page. Ultius also offers a wide selection of dissertation sample writing services.

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Buy Dissertation Buying a dissertation can be a stressful decision. What people are saying Ultius Writing Services 5. Buy a dissertation to fit your specific needs at the Master or PhD level Ultius writers produce high-quality dissertations that include all chapters, from your introduction to your conclusion Our professional writers understand that dissertations are not any ordinary essays.

Confidentiality is key Our writers never have access to your name or personal information and Ultius does not share your contact information with anyone. Delivered on time Get your sample dissertation by your deadline, guaranteed. Benefits of buying a dissertation from Ultius Such an important order as a dissertation may require notes and revisions, as well as a special level of care from our support staff.

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Chapters to Include in Your Dissertation. Outline the foundation Map out an outline that summarizes the content you anticipate writing about in your subsequent sections. Use enticing language The introduction is your chance to spark interest in your dissertation and your research study. Details to include in a literature review. Characteristic Angles Concentration Theories, practical implementations, research methods and results Objective Determine main problems, critical analysis, synthesis Point-of-view Neutral, supportive of a perspective Structure Methodological, historical, conceptual Scope All-encompassing, wide with some selectivity, focused on main points, narrowed to a significant point Readership Public, practitioners, academics, academic specialists.

What is a hypothesis? Hypothesis type Definition Explanatory A statement that seeks to explain an observation. The statement can be tested, proven true, or proven false. Generalizing A statement that describes a pattern that has been noticed or witnessed.

Prediction A statement that predicts a certain variable will impact other variables within restrictions of an experiment. Independent and dependent variables. The methodology will address: An explanation of the approach Justification for the approach How your approach compares to past studies and research on your topic How reliable your data is Whether your approach and data have any limitations Out of all the sections of a dissertation, the methodology is critical to its acceptance.

What has already been done? The three philosophical approaches. Were the results consistent with your thesis statement or hypothesis? What are the main insights you or your reader will be able to gain from the results? Devote some time to the results of other studies from your literature review. The differences between methodology and results.

Opening paragraph Briefly state what your general topic is about and give some background information on it. Did somebody miss something? Beginning Define your main research problem or question. What to include in an introduction. Overview of the details in a literature review. Quantitative Qualitative Mixed Sample set of data is analyzed according to a standard numerical value Identify meaningful results according to subjective experience Analyze data according to a combination of numerical value and subjective meaning.

Writing the hypothesis After you finish your literature review, look at the notes you made about the information What unfulfilled question appears to be the most promising in terms of testability? Can you test the independent variable within the boundaries of your methodology? Three basic steps in the scientific method. The questions a methodology should answer.

Results, meanings, comparisons What were the main takeaways from your results? Do they reveal certain themes or averages? What do you believe, based on your research and knowledge of the topic, the results mean? Alternatives, relevance, and limitations The second set of sections should discuss whether personal or outside biases impacted the results.

Future research and conclusion Did your results bring up any questions the results themselves were unable to answer? Roadmap The roadmap you provide to your readers should be contained within the first paragraph of the results section.

Writing the roadmap of a dissertation. Summary and inferences The first part of the conclusion section needs to review the most significant information from each section of the dissertation. The links below may help. Search hundreds of writing services. Tested Daily Click to Verify. Ultius Reviews Ultius is proud to have strong verified reviews from different review vendors. The Ultius Promise With every order, you can count on the following: Every order comes with these free features: Get in touch with us or explore common questions.

Contact us Read the FAQ. Fair Use Policy Ultius provides an online platform where we connect you with a freelance writer for sample writing, editing and business writing services. Order Revisions i The company offers free revisions, but there are some limitations like the deadline and whether we met the original instructions. Sample Writing ii Custom sample services are for model and reference use only. Terms Privacy Fair Use.

All-encompassing, wide with some selectivity, focused on main points, narrowed to a significant point. A statement that seeks to explain an observation.

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